A new analysis of United States naturalization data reveals how often applications for citizenship are denied based on racial, ethnic, gender and religious identities.
It found that among those seeking U.S. citizenship, women are favored over men, white people are favored over people of color, and non-Muslims are favored over Muslims.
The study, published February 22 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, relied on information obtained from the U.S. citizenship and immigration services.
The data was acquired through a freedom of information act request by the study’s first author, Emily Ryo, a professor of law and sociology at the University of Southern California.
It covers the period of October 2014 through March 2018.